Chapter 7: Summary of Findings
1. The Moscow Laboratory operated, for the protection of doped Russian athletes, within a State-dictated failsafe system, described in the report as
the Disappearing Positive Methodology.
2. The Sochi Laboratory operated a unique sample swapping methodology
to enable doped Russian athletes to compete at the Games.
3. The Ministry of Sport directed, controlled and oversaw the manipulation of athlete’s analytical results or sample swapping, with the active participation and a ssistance of the FSB, CSP, and both Moscow and Sochi Laboratories.
Findings with respect to Witnesses
1. Dr. Rodchenkov, in the context of the subject matter within the IP
mandate, was a credible and truthful person.
2.All other witnesses interviewed by the IP investigative team were
credible. Their evidence was only accepted where it met the standard of
beyond a reasonable doubt.
3.The Moscow Laboratory personnel did not have a choice in whether to be involved in the State directed system.
Findings with respect to Moscow Laboratory
1.The Moscow Laboratory operated under State directed oversight and
control of its anti-doping operational system.
2.The Moscow Laboratory personnel were required to be part of the State
directed system that enabled Russian athletes to compete while engaged
in the use of doping substances.
3. The Moscow Laboratory was the final failsafe protective shield in the State directed doping regime.
4.Sample bottles stored in the Moscow Laboratory from 10 September to 10 December 2014 were tampered with by having their urine swapped.
5.The Disappearing Positive Methodology was planned and operated over a period from at least late 2011 until August 2015.
6. Russian athletes from the vast majority of summer and winter Olympic
sports benefited from the Disappearing Positive Methodology.
Findings with respect to the Sochi Laboratory
1.The planning for the unique Sochi Laboratory sample swapping involved
the Ministry of Sport, FSB, CSP, and the Moscow Laboratory.
2.A pre-selected group of Russian athletes competing at Sochi were protected by the Sochi sample swapping methodology.
3. The Laboratory analytical analysis has established that some samples had salt levels in excess of what can be found in a healthy human urine
analysis, thereby confirming interview evidence that salt had been added.
4. Every sample bottle the IP investigation team examined revealed evidence of tampering consistent with the caps being removed and reused.
5.The DNA analysis confirmed 3 samples where the DNA did not match
that of the athlete.
Findings with respect to the Ministry of Sport
1.The Ministry of Sport made the determination as to which athletes would
be protected by the Disappearing Positive Methodology.
2. The Deputy Minister of Sport in his discretion made the save or quarantine order.
3.Russian officials knew that Russian athletes competing at Sochi used
Findings with respect to the FSB
1. The precise method used by the FSB to open the Sochi sample bottles is unknown. The IP experts conclusively established that the caps can be
removed and reused later.
1.The ongoing work of the IP investigation after the letter to the IAAF
reinforced the conclusions therein.